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Tuesday, January 6, 2009

Science: by Nainan K. Varghese

( Again the famous Scientist from Kerala State, India, Mr. Nainan K. Varghese has brought out a new concept in Science and I am sure our readers will read the new theory with enthusisasm, as they have done in the past. We are thankful to Mr.Nainan K. Varghese for giving us a chance to publish this important and valuable scientific theory in our publication. Part II will be published soon.)
The Work-done- Part I
By: Nainan K. Varghese,
In physics, work is defined as “the measure of energy transfer that occurs when an object is moved over a distance by an external force, at least part of which is applied in the direction of the displacement”. Work-done is assumed as the product of a force and the distance moved by its point of application in the direction of force. It indicates the change of state (of motion) of the body. State of the body is indicated by total work about the body. Work-done on a macro body may also be observed as changes in its other parameters, like: its compression, rotation, invisible motions of body-particles within a body, etc., which represent a change in its state. However, these are the results of changes in the linear velocities of constituent matter particles of the body.

Here, the work is understood in terms of two functional entities, derived from work-done, itself. Force and change in the linear velocity are both rates of work-done. Work-done on or about a macro body by a force is observable and tangible as changes in its linear (or angular) speed. An entity that is observable and tangible is a real entity. Energy and force are neither observable nor tangible, directly. They are functional entities. Although the effects of energy are presumed (as changes in temperature, speed of body-particles, etc.), so far, no one knows what the energy is. Force is the rate of work-done with respect to linear motion of a body. Since energy is normally equated with work, their quantities are considered as numerically equal and the units in which work is expressed are the same as those for energy, joule (newton-metre). If the force is constant, work may be computed by multiplying the length of the path by the component of the force acting along the path.

In this context, no work is done, unless the object or its constituent particles are displaced and there is a component of the force along the path over which the object or its constituent particles are moved. Supporting a heavy object, stationary, does not do any work because there is no displacement of the body. Holding the end of a rope on which a heavy object is being swung around at constant speed in a circle does not transfer energy to the object, because the force is toward the centre of the circle, at a right angle to the displacement (and changes in the work-done and work-lost produce no resultant).
Mathematical expression for work depends upon particular circumstances. Work-done in compressing a gas at constant temperature may be expressed as the product of pressure times the change in its volume. Work-done by a torque in rotating a shaft may be expressed as the product of the torque times the angular displacement. It is believed that the work done on a body is equal to the increase in the energy of the body, for work is believed to transfer energy to the body. However, if the applied force is opposite to the motion of the object, the work is considered to be negative, implying that energy is taken from the object. of the law (Will Continue)

***Nainan K. Varghese The author has all the rights of this article. The views and theories brought forward by the author and authors are their own; our publication has no responsibility to prove or disapprove anyone's theories and ideas.(George Kurian-for New World)

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