Lima, one of the most popular place in Peru has withstand earthquakes, chaos of war and the rise and fall of civilisations. Before the Spaniards arrived, it has been a thriving urban cradle.
As Francisco Pizzaro, the conqueror approximated the number of inhabitants, he reported about 200,000 indigenous people in the area. After a grave earthquake decimated the city in 1746, it was re-established with baroque churches (rise of architecture) and splendid mansions.
Source: McCarthy, Caroline, et al. Peru. The Lonely Planet.